Innovation can be achieved through creation of something new, refinement of existing technologies, or the development of new applications for existing technologies. The AFMS ORTA provides the collaborative environment necessary to effectively transfer research to non-federal entities for commercialization and introduction into medical practice. Medical technology emerging from the AFMS has a broader application to civilian medical practice than to military medical practice in most cases. This does not diminish the military impact of this medical technology. However, it does imply all such technologies should be carefully examined as to their domestic technology transfer potential to enhance the public benefit of defense health program expenditures on clinical research.